Frequently Asked Questions
Osteopaths use a variety of hands-on physical treatments. These include techniques such as soft tissue therapy, osteoarticular mobilization, high velocity low amplitude manipulation, muscle energy, positional facilitated release, Still's, strain and counterstrain, cranial osteopathy, visceral manipulation, therapeutic joint specific exercises, global, oscillatory, thermogenic, manual mechanotherapy & lymphatic drainage. These techniques are normally employed together with exercise, dietary, and occupational advice in an attempt to help patients recover from pain, disease and injury.
European style Osteopaths do not prescribe medications or perform surgery, while American style osteopaths perform surgery and prescribe medications as well as using osteopathic techniques in managing a patient's condition.
National University of Medical Sciences offers a 4 years full time program in the European style of osteopathy leading to a doctor of osteopathy (DO) degree as well as a 3 years full time bachelor of science in osteopathy.
Students who wish to enrol in the doctor of osteopathy (DO) program must have a bachelor's degree or must have a professional degree in a doctoral program such as chiropractic, medicine, or physiotherapy. Students who do not have the above requirements may take the duel degree program of BSc/DO (4 years FT). The dual degree program allows students to obtain a bachelor's degree concurrently with the DO program, thus fulfilling the pre-requisites needed to enter the DO program without spending additional time. However the dual programs require more effort and studying.
To enrol in the MBA, MSc (P) or MSc (AT) program students either must have a university bachelor's degree or must have a professional degree such as DO, DC, PT, ND, OD. Students who do not have the above requirements may take the duel degree program of BSc (O)/ MSc (P), BSc (O)/MBA or BSc (O)/MSc (AT).
The DO program is 4 years full time (for regular category 1 students ), 2 years full time (for category 2 students with previous health education), & 1year full time (for category 3 students who are doctors or physiotherapists).
The BSc program in osteopathy is 3 years full time (category 1), 1 year full time (category 2), & 6 months full time (category 3). The MBA & MSc (AT) programs are 1 year full time for all students.
Tuition for the combined degree programs is €1,949.06 for each semester of the MBA/DO, €2,165.63 for the BSc/DO, €2,021.25 for the BSc/MBA, €2,021.25 for the BSc (O)/MSc (AT), and €2,598.75 for the BSc/MBA/DO.
- B.Sc(O) / MBA
- MBA / DO
- BSc(O) / MSc (AT)
- B.Sc. / MBA / DO
- BSc (O) / MSc (P)
- MSc (P) / DO
- MSc (AT) / DO
- BSC (O) / DPT
- DO / DPT
- MBA / DPT
- MSc (AT) / DPT
- BSc(O) / DN
- DBM / DN
- DBM / DN / DO
- MBA / DN / DO
Most osteopaths work in private clinics, often as sole proprietor, associate or employee. However, the increase in multidisciplinary health care facilities and physical rehabilitation clinics has opened new opportunities for these osteopaths to collaborate with other health care professionals (such as family physicians, massage therapists, naturopaths, athletic therapists, kinesiologists, podiatrists, chiropodists, occupational therapists, ergonomists, & acupuncturists) and benefit patients with interprofessional care.
A small numbers of osteopaths also work in hospitals, nursing homes, health spas, sports teams, insurance companies claims services department, fitness clubs, cruise ship spas, colleges, universities, private schools, motor vehicle accident (MVA) assessment centres and other institutions.
Most new graduates start their professional work as employees. Later they establish their own private clinics.
Osteopaths in private practise generally charge between $60 to $140 per hour of treatment. Osteopathic treatments are covered by most extended health plan insurers in Canada, England, USA, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Germany and a number of other countries. However in most countries patients pay out of pocket for osteopathy treatments as private or government insurance is not available.
In certain countries such as Iran; there is a six months waiting list for patients to see an osteopath. There is a large demand for services provided by osteopaths in most parts of the world. There is zero unemployment in this profession. All osteopaths find employment in a short time upon graduation.
There are osteopathy colleges in Canada, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Norway, Denmark, Portugal, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, Germany, Russia, England, Poland, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, and France.
Historically there is a political answer relating to the founder of osteopathy, Dr Andrew Taylor Still, falling out with his student, Dr. D.D. Palmer, who then went on to be the founder of chiropractic.
The principle working difference is that osteopaths tend to use more rhythmical and gentler techniques while chiropractors use more often stronger, high velocity, low amplitude manipulative techniques.
Essentially, both offer valuable and useful services, and each can be included in a holistic healthcare regimen. There are now many multidisciplinary clinics offering osteopathy, chiropractic, physiotherapy, acupuncture and massage therapy services. This seems to be the new growing trend in Italy, the United Kingdom & the rest of Europe as well as Canada, Australia, New Zealand & the USA, especially for patients injured in motor vehicle accidents.
Chiropractors & osteopaths both can choose to become specialists in radiology, orthopaedics, neurology, clinical nutrition, paediatrics, sports medicine, and clinical sciences. Both chiropractors and osteopaths are primary care givers who can see patients directly without the need for a referral from a medical doctor. And both are permitted to use physiotherapy modalities such as ultrasound, laser and electrotherapy.
With the advancement in communication technology online education is improving rapidly. Time has shown that many of health related programs can indeed be taught online. Here are some examples:
- Since 2003; many universities in the USA have been offering transitional Doctor of Physical Therapy (tDPT) through 100% online education. The tDPT is available only to physiotherapists as a post professional degree. However the older generation of physiotherapists did not study diagnostic imaging, medical diagnosis or manual therapy. And the tDPT program teaches these subjects. So it is possible to learn diagnosis, radiology and manual therapy through online programs.
- Since 2010; National Academy of Osteopathy has been offering online osteopathic education. NAO teaches in 65 cities and as such has graduates many manual osteopaths. These osteopaths are working now in Europe, Asia, Africa and America treating many patients. Since 2010, there has not been even one reported complaint against any of the NAO graduates. This is a clear indication of the safety and efficacy of online osteopathic education.
- Since a decade ago; the University of Western Ontario has been offering a Diploma in Pedorthics program. The program has 6 courses which are online. These courses includes assessments and pedorthic examinations. The university has graduated many students and they are currently working as certified pedorthists in Canada. This shows that pedorthic education can be learned online.
- A United Kingdom university is offering a 100% online specialty program in orthopedic surgery to medical doctors since the past few years.
- Many universities in the USA are offering online master’s degrees in nursing since the past decade.
- A college in Alberta, Canada is offering a diploma program in massage through online education.
- Many colleges and universities in USA and elsewhere offer naturopathy diplomas and degrees through online format.
- A school in USA has just started teaching needle-less acupuncture online.
- Traditional Chinese Medicine is offered online through many schools.
- Clinical nutrition is offered by hundreds of universities and colleges worldwide.
- Kinesiology & human kinetics is offered through online education by a number of schools.
- Degrees in clinical psychology is offered by many universities.
Some of the osteopathic techniques we teach include osteo-articular joint mobilization, HVLA manipulation, static joint play, palpation, mobility testing, cranial osteopathy, visceral manipulation, strain / counterstrain, lymphatic drainage & pump, muscle energy, positional facilitated release, Still's, manual mechanotherapy (the lost techniques of osteopathy), soft tissue therapy, myofascial release technique, trigger point therapy, therapeutic joint specific exercise, etc.
|DO||BSC in Osteopathy|
|Study Time (category 1 students)||4 years full time (category 1)||3 years full time (category 1)|
|Accelerated Study time (categories 2 & 3)
for students with prior health education: physiotherapists, massage therapists, chiropractors, acupuncturists, physicians, kinesiologists, manual osteopaths, etc)
|2 years full time (category 2)
1 year full time (category 3)
No part time
|1 year full time (category 2)
6 months full time (category 3)
No part time
|Total Tuition (category 1 students)||€12,000 (Euro)||€9,000 (Euro)|
|Total Tuition (category 2 students)||€6,000||€3,000|
|Total Tuition (category 3 students)||€3,000||€1,500|
|Books||€100 to €400 per semester||€100 to €400 per semester|
|Average Annual Income||$90,000 +||$90,000|
|Hourly Treatment Fee||$80 to $140||$60 to $140|
|International Osteopathic Association (IOA) License Number||Must become IOA member to receive license to practice||Must become IOA member to receive license to practice|
|Malpractice Insurance Cost||$500 to $700 per year||$300 to $500 per year|
|Practice||Primary health practitioner. Can open independent clinic and see patients directly without supervision.||Primary health practitioner. Can open independent clinic and see patients directly without supervision.|
|Osteopathic Assessment||Able to perform assessments||Able to perform assessments|
|Osteopathic Techniques||Able to perform all osteopathic techniques||Able to perform all osteopathic techniques|
|Physiotherapy||Able to provide physiotherapy modalities to patients||Able to provide physiotherapy modalities with extra training|
|Decompression Traction Therapy (DTT)||Able to perform DTT||Able to perform DTT with extra training|
|Custom Made Orthotic Casting & dispensing||Able to cast & dispense||Able to cast & dispense with extra training|
|Support Hose Fitting||Able to fit compression socks||Able to fit compression socks with extra training|
|Clinical Ergonomic Services||Able to provide clinical ergonomics to patients||Able to provide this service only with extra training|
|Independent Medical Evaluation (IME)||Able to perform||Able to perform|
|AMA Impairment Rating||Able to perform||Able to perform|
|Disability Certificates||Able to sign||Able to sign|
|Treatment Plans||Able to sign||Able to sign|
|Functional Abilities Evaluation (FAE)||Able to perform FAE||Able to perform FAE with extra training|
|Home Based Assessment (HBA)||Able to perform HBA||Able to perform HBA with extra training|
|Job Site Analysis (JSA)||Able to perform JSA||Able to perform JSA with extra training|
|Osteopathy Treatment at Home||Permitted||Permitted|
|University Teaching Position||Available as professor||Available as teacher`s assistant|
|Research Position||May be hired as researcher||May be hired as research assistant|
|University Credit||Course accepted as university credit||Course accepted as university credit|
|Prerequisite||3 years Prior university education||High school graduation (grade 12 or equivalent)|
|Employment Potential||Zero unemployment. All osteopaths work soon after graduation.||Zero unemployment. All osteopaths work soon after graduation.|
|Radiology||Able to read X-rays||Not permitted|
|Specialty||Able to specialize in orthopaedics, neurology, sports medicine & rehabilitation medicine||Not available|
|Master's Degree||Not able to enrol in a university master's program without having a bachelor's degree||Able to enrol in most postgraduate master's programs including MBA|
|New Patients||Doctors offer more services (orthotics, ergonomics, physiotherapy, decompression) and they are more versatile clinically as they read x-rays. As a result they have more new patients.||Services are limited to osteopathic treatments unless additional courses are taken.|
|Prestige||No other degrees have the same prestige as a doctor of osteopathy. There are just a small number of DOs in the world so having a DO makes you belong to an exclusive club.||A bachelor`s degree is a great way to start a career as it is a gateway that takes you to many other directions. There are not many osteopaths with a bachelor`s degree and having a BSc in osteopathy makes you unique amongst your peers.|
First mechanism: Osteopathic manual therapy (OMT) increases joint mobility by producing a barrage of impulses in muscle spindle afferents and smaller-diameter afferents ultimately silencing facilitated ? (gamma) motoneurons as proposed by Korr. This theory is supported by several recent studies by the Pickar lab and by findings that low back pain patients have altered proprioceptive input from muscle spindles. Recent work has also shown that that OMT modifies the discharge of Group I and II afferents. This has been accomplished by recording single-unit activity in muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ afferents in an animal model during OMT.
A second mechanism is that OMT, by mechanically opening the intravertebral foramina (IVF), decreases pressure on the dorsal roots. Substantial evidence shows that the dorsal nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia are susceptible to the effects of mechanical compression. Compressive loads as low as 10 mg applied to dorsal roots increase the discharge of Group I, II, III and IV afferents. This compression can also alter non-impulse-based mechanisms (eg, axoplasmic transport) and cause edema and hemorrhage in the dorsal root. OMT mechanically decreases the pressure in the IVF by gaping the facet joints and opening the IVF. For instance, the synovial space of the lumbar facet joints increases by about 0.7 mm in individuals receiving manipulation. This doesn't seem like much, but as with any therapy there is usually a course of care involved. Even in moderate stenosis patients treated by manual osteopaths typically see significant pain reduction following a period of 1-2 weeks of treatment.
A third mechanism is based on findings that persistent alterations in normal sensory input resulting from an injury can increases the excitability of neuronal circuits in the spinal cord. OMT works by applying non-noxious mechanical inputs to these circuits. This involves mechanisms similar to the pain-gate theory proposed by Melzack and Wall wherein activation of A-a and A-b fibers can reduce chronic pain and increase pain threshold levels. This is supported by studies where OMT of the lumbar region decreases central pain processing as measured via pin-prick tests. Additional studies have shown a reduction in central pain sensitivity after OMT using graded pressure and noxious cutaneous electrical stimulation.
A fourth mechanism involves beta-endorphin mechanisms. Studies have shown increases in beta-endorphin levels after OMT but not after control interventions.
Fifth mechanism: Substantial evidence also shows that OMT activates para-spinal muscle reflexes and alters motoneuron excitability. These effects are still being studied and appear to differ depending on whether performed on patients in pain or pain-free subjects.
A sixth mechanism involves inhibition of somatosomatic reflexes by alterations in muscle spindle input produced by OMT. It is thought that OMT may normalize spindle biomechanics and improve muscle spindle discharge.
Lastly, in humans, osteopathic manual treatment can decrease heart rate and blood pressure while increasing vagal afferent activity as measured by heart-rate variability. OMT in rats have been shown to produce an inhibitory effect on the cardiovascular excitatory response and reduce both blood pressure and heart rate. Osteopathic soft tissue therapy have been shown to impact behavioral manifestations associated with chronic activation of the HPA axis such as anxiety and depression, while decreasing plasma, urinary, and salivary cortisol and urinary corticotropin releasing factor-like immunoreactivity (CRF-LI). Manual stimulation in rats has been shown to significantly increase glucocorticoid receptor gene expression which enhanced negative feedback inhibition of HPA activity and reduced post-stress secretion of ACTH and glucocorticoid.
The only similarity between Athletic Therapists and personal trainers is that both work with athletes, but they are two very different professions.
Universities and Colleges
Athletic Therapists work with varsity athletes providing expertise on injury prevention, emergency and acute care, assessment and rehabilitation of injuries as well as developing conditioning programs. Many Athletic Therapists also teach related subject matters at various academic institutions.
Athletic Therapists are currently employed by professional teams in the NHL, CFL, NBA, MLB, NWHL, NLL as well as professional dance companies. These therapists are responsible for injury prevention, emergency and acute injury care, assessment and complete rehabilitation of injuries and development of conditioning programs.
Athletic Therapists are an integral part of the ongoing care of national athletes. Athletic Therapists either work directly with the team or are selected to the medical teams for games such as; Olympics; Pan Am; Commonwealth; World Cup, etc.
Private Sports Medicine Clinics
A growing number of Athletic Therapists own or work in fee-for-service clinics, treating a variety of injuries and conditions. Treatment will include injury assessment and rehabilitation as well as conditioning programs for all active individuals.
In this article we will discuss only the osteopathic education of the European style osteopathy (also known as manual osteopathy or osteopathic manual practice). The American style osteopathy is similar to medical education in that it takes 3 years of university, followed by 4 years of osteopathic medical college and 2 years of residency, making it a total of 9 years. The American style osteopaths (also known as osteopathic physicians) can perform surgery and prescribe medications. This is available only in the USA.
Manual osteopathy is taught in diploma or degree formats.
The osteopathic colleges that offer diploma programs either issue a DOMP (Diploma in Osteopathic Manual Practice, a DO (Diploma in Osteopathy, not be confused with the Doctor of Osteopathy), a DMO (Diploma in Manual Osteopathy) and so on, ranging from 4 months full time to 5 years part time.
The osteopathic universities offering degree programs either issue a DO (Doctor of Osteopathy), BSc (Bachelor of Science in Osteopathy), MSc (Master of Science in Osteopathy), and so on, ranging from 3 to 6 years full time.
The diploma programs are generally offered in USA & Canada. In the diploma programs of osteopathy, medical diagnosis is not taught. Spinal and joint manipulations are also not taught as these two are controlled acts in Canada and USA. Manual osteopaths in Canada and USA are not permitted to render a medical diagnosis nor may they do manipulation. They can use hundreds of other osteopathic techniques though such as mobilization, muscle energy techniques, soft tissue therapy, etc.
As a result the diploma program in manual osteopathy is a lot shorter in time than the degree programs. The diploma programs generally include 800 to 2000 hours of lectures.
The World Health Organization (WHO) report on osteopathic education recommends a total number of 1000 hours of osteopathic education for students with previous health education, and 4200 hours of education for students without previous health education. National Academy of Osteopathy offers a diploma in osteopathic manual practice that fits in this category. It takes 4 months of condensed education for students with prior health education to complete the DOMP program of NAO.
NAO graduates with a DOMP degree can work in all countries of the world as osteopaths. However in USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, & United Kingdom they must work as osteopathic manual practitioners, as the term osteopath is either reserved for osteopathic physicians (in USA & Canada) or is used by those with a degree program in osteopathy (in Australia, New Zealand & UK).
NAO also offers a post graduate 4 years (4200 hours) fellowship program for manual osteopaths in Osteopathic Rehabilitation Sciences for those interested in postgraduate studies.
The degree programs offered in osteopathic education range from 3 to 6 years full time. Most require 2 to 3 years of prior university education, and some are available only to health professionals.
In the degree programs students learn full medical diagnosis, with a lot of emphasis on practical training and they learn more diverse techniques. National University of Medical Sciences (www.numss.com) for example offers two degree programs in osteopathy, a full time 3 years bachelor of science in osteopathy & a 4 years full time doctor of osteopathy. Students with prior health education can finish the degree programs faster, as per WHO guidelines.
For example, physiotherapists can finish the BSc in 6 months or the DO in 1 year. This depends to the university offering the degrees. Some do not offer any advanced credits, as the case is in Italy, where they accept physiotherapists only to the osteopathy program and then they must study 6 more years.
World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that osteopathic schools give advance credits to students who are health practitioners and recommends 1000 hours of study for them.
It is important to note that manual osteopaths with either a diploma or a degree program can work in all countries, without exception. All they need is to pass the board exams of the International Osteopathy Examining Board and then become a member of the International Osteopathic Association. They will receive a license number which allows them to obtain malpractice insurance, and then either work in a clinic or to open their own clinics.
It is understandable that a number of osteopaths with degrees, such as the ones in Italy, who have studied 9 years to become an osteopath (after paying up to $90,000 in tuition) feel bitter and resentful towards the new osteopaths with a diploma who in 4 months (after paying just $5026 for tuition) are able to work as osteopaths in Italy and elsewhere.
Thousands of manual osteopaths with a DOMP diploma have been practicing more than 30 years in Canada & USA and are offering excellent osteopathic care. Knowledge of medical diagnosis is not necessary to practice manual osteopathy. Massage therapists for decades have been providing great services to patients without ever being able to medically diagnose a patient. The practice of manual osteopathy is actually quite safe when medical diagnosis is removed as the manual osteopath can just focus on treatment.
In summary, the diploma in osteopathic manual practice is for those students who want to graduate quickly, pay less tuition, and have a more relaxing osteopathic practice. The degree programs in osteopathy is for those students who wish to become doctors, who wish to have advanced knowledge of the body and deep mastery of the osteopathic techniques. For this they have to pay more tuition & spend more time studying.
Both the diploma and degree programs are great ways to serve patients. They are just two sides of the same coin, each with different type of benefit for the osteopathic practitioner. National Academy of Osteopathy & National University of Medical Sciences offer diploma and degree programs that can be taken online or in-campus. With our diplomas or degree we guarantee that you can practice in any country of the world.
To see the difference between scope of practice of diploma and degree programs in osteopathy please click on the link below:
- College des Osteopathes Canadiens (CDOC)
- Alliance Canadienne de Medecine Alternative (ACMA)
- Ontario Association of Osteopathy & Natural Medicine (OAONM)
- Asociation des osteopathes Regroupement des Intervenants et Therapeutes en Medecine Alternative (RITMA)
- Ontario Osteopathic & Alternative Medicine Association (OOAMA)
- Bangladesh Board of Physiotherapy Specialists (BBPS)
- Ontario Association of Osteopathic Practitioners (OAOP)
In most cases you cannot bill extended health plan (EHP) insurers for osteopathy and another type of treatment (chiropractic, physiotherapy, massage therapy, naturopathy, athletic therapy, acupuncture, etc) on the same day. Most EHP insurers accept only one type of treatment from one health practitioner. Your clinic can bill for osteopathy and massage therapy for example on the same day if the treatments are performed by two health practitioners. But if the health practitioner is a massage therapist/osteopath then in one day massage therapy must be billed and another day osteopathy.
This does not apply to motor vehicle accident (MVA) patients. For MVA patients health practitioners can charge the insurers for more than one type of therapy. For example on the same visit an insurer can be billed for osteopathic treatment, physiotherapy, and rehabilitation.
In all other countries, including Italy, Spain, France, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, South Korea, Brazil, Iran, China, Taiwan, Japan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, Singapore, Mexico, Venezuela, Greece, Vietnam, Netherlands, Turkey, Austria, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, & Denmark , our graduates can use the term osteopath and practice as osteopaths.
|Designation||DOMP, DO, BSc (O), MSc (O)||DC, BSc (C), MSc (C)||BSc (PT), MSc (PT), PhD, DPT||RMT, LMT, MT|
|Average School Tuition||$5,000 to $100,000||$60,000 to $120,000||Free (government paid) to $100,000||$15,000 to $30,000|
|Study Time for Regular Students||From 1 to 4 years (depending on diploma or degree)||3 to 4 years||2 to 4 years||1 to 2 years|
|Accelerated Program Study Time for Students With Prior Health Education||4 months to 2 years (depending on student's background & diploma or degree program)||1 to 2 years depending on student's background||1 to 2 years depending on student's background||4 months to 1 year depending on student's background|
|Average Annual Income||$90,000||$100,000||$80,000||$60,000|
|Average hiring salary for new graduates||$30 Per Hour||$40 Per Hour||$40 Per Hour||$20 Per Hour|
|Average Hourly Treatment Fee (Canada)||$80 to $140||$100 to $150||$80 to $150||$60 to $80|
|Hourly Fee Set by Financial Service Commission of Ontario for Car Accident Patients||$57.67||$111.80||$98.86||$57.67|
|Insurance Coverage in Canada||Accepted by all major insurers||Accepted by all major insurers||Accepted by all major insurers||Accepted by all major insurers|
|Practice||Primary health practitioner. Can open independent clinic and see patients directly without supervision.||Primary health practitioner. Can open independent clinic and see patients directly without supervision in most countries. In some places must be supervised by MD|
|Medical Diagnosis||Yes (for degree holders), No (for diploma holders)||Yes||Yes||No|
|Manual Diagnosis||Yes, both diploma & degree holders can perform osteopathic diagnosis||Yes, can perform chiropractic diagnosis||No. Manual diagnosis is not taught||No. Manual diagnosis is not taught|
|Physiotherapy Modalities||Yes (diploma holders need extra training||Yes||Yes||No|
|Prerequisite to Education||High school graduation for diploma holders & BSc (O), university education for DO & MSc (O)||University education||High school graduation||High school graduation|
|Employment Potential||Zero unemployment||Zero unemployment||Zero unemployment||Zero unemployment|
|Radiography||Not permitted||Able to take x-rays||Not permitted||Not permitted|
|Radiology||Degree holders able to read x-rays. Diploma holders no.||Able to read x-rays||Not able to read x-rays||Not able to read x-rays|
|Most Common Disorder Treated||Low back pain followed by neck pain||Low back pain followed by neck pain||Low back pain followed by neck pain||Low back pain followed by neck pain|
|Foot Orthotics||Able to cast & dispense||Able to cast & dispense||Able to cast & dispense||Not able|
|Orthopaedic Bracing||Able to dispense||Able to dispense||Able to dispense||Not Able|
|Compression support hose||Able to dispense||Able to dispense||Able to dispense||Not able|
|Treatment Plan||Able to sign||Able to sign||Able to sign||Able to sign|
|Functional Abilities Evaluation||Degree holders permitted.||Permitted||Permitted||Not Permitted|
|Job Site Analysis||Degree holders permitted||Permitted||Permitted||Not Permitted|
|Home Based Assessment||Degree holders permitted.||Permitted||Permitted||Not Permitted|
|Independent Medical Evaluation||Degree holders permitted||Permitted||Permitted||Not Permitted|
|Treatments at Home||Permitted||Permitted||Permitted||Permitted|
|Regulation||Regulated in 7 countries||Regulated in 7 countries||Regulated in all countries||Regulated in 7 countries|
|Can Open Independent Clinic||Yes, in all countries||Yes, in all countries||Yes, in some countries. Elsewhere PTs must work in an MD owned clinic or hospital||Yes, in all countries|
|Largest Schools in Canada||National Academy of Osteopathy||Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College||University of Toronto||Humber College|
|Largest Schools Internationally||National University of Medical Sciences||Palmer University||University of Southern California||University of Illinois|
|Founder||Dr Andre Taylor Still||Dr Daniel David Palmer||Henrique Ling||Unknown|
|First known school||121 years ago in USA||116 years ago in USA||100 years ago in UK||Less than 100 years ago in USA|
|Largest Association||International Osteopathic Association||American Chiropractic Association||American Physical Therapy Association||American Massage Therapy Association|
- Primary health care providers (physicians, dentists, chiropractors, manual osteopaths, veterinarians, athletic therapists and other treating health professionals.)
- Managers in engineering, architecture & information systems.
- Managers in health care, education & social services.
- Managers in construction and transportation
- Accountants & other business service professionals.
- Scientists & engineers.
- Nurses & nursing supervisors.
- Medical technologists.
- Social workers, psychologists, counsellors, probation officers.
- Supervisors in mining, oil & gas manufacturing & processing.
The group address is: www.fb.com/groups/weloveosteopathy.
There are 21,741 students of American style osteopathy (also known as osteopathic medicine) enrolled in the DO (Doctor of Osteopathy) programs in American osteopathic universities and schools.
USA is the only country offering education in osteopathic medicine. All other countries where students enrolled offer European style osteopathic education (no surgery, no medication).
Friend of patient 29.7%
Medical Doctor (M.D.) 23.6%
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) 3.9%
Chinese medicine 2.3%
Personal trainer 3.5%
Massage therapist 6.6%
Private clinic 43%
With 1 partner 14.1%
More than 2 partners 18.2%
Outpatient clinic 2.9%
Medical institution 3.9%
The 2nd most common is 45 to 60 minutes, which 31.8% of patients receive.
|Bahrain||3||Belgium||1,539||Belize||1||Bosnia & Herzegovina||2||Brazil||250|
|Chile||45||China (including Hong Kong & Macau)||150||Costa Rica||15||Croatia||2||Czech Republic||5|
|Slovenia||2||Spain||800||South Africa||49||South Korea||200||St Lucia||1|
|Thailand||45||Trinidad & Tobago||1||Turkey||25||UAE||30||UK||4,211|
Program length is one reason students transfer to NUMSS (Spain). We offer accelerated programs for health professionals, such as physiotherapists.
Tuition is another reason they transfer to NUMSS. In some countries students pay up to 100,000 EURO for osteopathic education. We offer the most affordable osteopathic education in Europe and North America.
Another reason is that they can enrol in dual degree programs and graduate with two degrees. This would save students time and money.
This is great news for the profession of manual osteopathy as it gives a unique identity to the job title of our graduates, and it is a great step towards regulating the profession of manual osteopathy in Ontario and elsewhere in Canada.
Previously there was only the title "osteopath or Doctor of Osteopathy" was classified in Canada to represent anyone who practices any forms of osteopathy. Now there are officially two distinct forms of osteopathy in Canada, one the osteopathic medicine, which its practitioners call themselves osteopaths in Canada and the other European style manual osteopathy which its practitioners are called manual osteopaths or osteopathic manual practitioners.
The second DO is Diploma in Osteopathy, offered in the province of Quebec in Canada, and most European countries. This is European style manual osteopathy diploma.
The third DO is Doctor of Osteopathy issued by National University of Medical Sciences and others indicating a doctoral degree in European style manual osteopathy.
All of the above education takes about 4 years to be completed.
Our Canadian students can now receive Tuition, Education, and Textbook tax credits from Canada Revenue Agency (CRA).
To receive this tax credit our students must submit to CRA the TL11A form (Tuition, Education, and Textbook Amounts Certificate - University Outside Canada) along with their annual tax return.
Students should contact the National University of Medical Sciences (Spain) admissions office and ask a copy of signed and completed TL11A be emailed to them.
This is such great news as it would potentially save thousands of dollars for NUMSS Canadian students.
You must have already been graduated as a manual osteopath and have already opened your own private osteopathy clinic. Your clinic must be less than one year old and you have to agree to work with a mentor for up to 2 years and prepare a business plan.
John Smith, DO (Spain)
Osteopathic Manual Practitioner
If you do not treat patients (for example if you are a teacher or clinic manager), you can use:
Dr John Smith, DO
If you treat patients, you cannot call yourself a doctor or use the designation “Dr”. However everyone else can call you a doctor or use “Dr” before your name (as long as they are not your employees).
This applies only to those graduates practicing in Ontario. In most countries you are allowed to use Dr John Smith, DO.
Dr Javadifar teaches custom made foot orthotics & orthopedic shoes casting, making, modification & dispensing at NUMSS to the manual osteopathy, physiotherapy and pedorthics students. He also owns one of the best orthotics manufacturing labs in Canada, while also having a multidisciplinary clinic in North York, Ontario. Shahla & Sara, two NAO graduated manual osteopaths work with Dr Javadifar in his clinic.
We congratulate Professor Javadifar on becoming a doctor of osteopathy and wish him continued success.
Any of our graduates who needs an orthotics lab, please contact him directly. NAO and NUMSS graduates receive discounts.
Did you know that we are the only osteopathic university that has Canadian, American, European & Asian technique instructors?
The annual membership fee is €35 (Euro). As members of the association, students receive regular and relevant scientific articles & the opportunity to take courses at a discount.
To register applicants must complete a registration form and send it (via email ). All the information can be found in www.sefip.org .
If you need more information please contact Monica Yuste, SEFIP secretary at email@example.com.
4-lower limbs diagnosis
5-lower limbs assessment
6-pathomechanics & foot care
This is the first time one of our graduates is employed by a hospital.
The money must go to start up costs of your osteopathy clinic and is non-payable (this is a grant, not a loan).
Each grant comes with its own criteria and rules, but they all require that a start-up osteopathy clinic be endorsed and that the cash investment be matched by a third, non-government source (such as the manual osteopath).
Your clinic must be located in Ontario, and be incorporated. You must be the director or majority shareholder of your osteopathic clinic. The clinic must be less than 3 years old and you must be a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident.
The graduates must be the clinic owner, and be a Canadian citizen or permanent resident. The osteopathy clinic must have been in operation for two years or longer. Clinics less than two years old are not eligible to apply. The loan must be repaid within 4 years and the current interest rate is 5.7%. The application process is completely online, eliminating any need for personal visits and meetings.
The research done recently in USA compared two sets of students learning a manual skill, one set in a class and another from an online video. The results indicated that in the same day, after watching the skill being taught online vs live in the classroom, those classroom students learned the skill better. However after one week, the online students performed the skill clearly better than the campus students.
The conclusion the researchers made is that the campus based students learn from an instructor and then rely on memory to perform the skill task every day. While the online students get to watch the instructor everyday and this makes their skill set closer to what the instructor teaches.
So in the short term (the same day) campus based education is better. However in the long term online students perform better techniques.
At National Academy of Osteopathy even our campus based students have access to our online manual osteopathy lecture videos. That is one reason why NAO graduates are so masterful in performing osteopathic techniques.
These techniques also produce increased nociceptive flexion reflex threshold, improved posture, decreased concentration of substance P, and improved sway index.
The evidence for effectiveness of osteopathic osteoarticular techniques suggests involvement of an endogenous pain inhibition system mediated by the central nervous system.
Our Canadian graduates of the DO program in Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba cannot use the “Dr” before their names. However they can say “John Smith, DO (Spain), doctor of osteopathy graduate of NUMSS (Spain) in their business cards, websites, etc.